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Philosophy
Eco-Feminism: Val Plumwood
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Plato and Aristotle: Focus on the State
Social Contract: Hume
Social Contract: Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes' Leviathan, Chapter 13
Thomas Hobbes' THE LEVIATHAN, chapter 17
Thomas Hobbes' THE LEVIATHAN, chapter 19
Social Contract: John Locke
Eco-Feminism: Val Plumwood
Communism: Marcuse

To Val Plumwood, the treatment as inferior/as other of both women and nature is a link that grows from the rationalist conception of human nature and also from the liberalist focus on the individual as most important.







To Plumwood, the very idea of a rationalist framework is negative because it juxtaposes two concepts that are never really treated as equal. For example, instead of rational/emotional being two equals on a balance beam, the positioning of rational makes it superior at least in the visual sense, and in practice, in the application sense. Our culture continues to value the rational over the emotional and as masculine is usually identified with rational and feminine is usually identified with emotional, to value the male over the female. To Plumwood, this it/other dualism gives priority to the first (superior item) over the second (inferior) item.







The dualism also affects the concept of nature in the mind/body juxtaposition when mind equals intellect and body equals nature and never are the two to meet. Here nature is other, and by definition, inferior to the mind. Think of the concept of the term "tree huggers." They are presented as emotional and irrational, not as wise stewards of the land.







Plumwood also denigrates the liberals who focus on self-autonomy. This concept of self does not account for linkages to others where the self is supreme and what is good for the one is most important. In this concept of liberalism as self-hood and self actualization, self-actualization is actually achieved through subjugation of or dismissal of the needs of others and of nature. Here nature is a resource, not an equal.







The concept of manifest destiny that allowed for conquering a land that was occupied but not "owned" is part of this liberalism view of "let me control the land I own as I see fit." Opposite of this, but just as harmful to the environment (nature) is the concept of imminent domain where the state is allowed to gain ownership of individual property (usually land or water rights) if the state's ownership is for "the good of the many."







Plumwood's utopian vision of philosophy is a RELATIONAL view of self in which humans interact with each other as interdependent and also recognize and respect the interdependence they have with nature. The best models for this recognition of interdependence between humans and between humans and nature is found in native Americans, especially in the nomadic tribes such as the Lakota.



Philosophy with dr.b