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Social Contract: Hume
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Plato and Aristotle: Focus on the State
Social Contract: Hume
Social Contract: Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes' Leviathan, Chapter 13
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In Book 3 Hume explores natural virtues (essential to human nature) such as compassion and friendship, and artificial virtues (social conventions) such as justice, promise-keeping, and allegiance (Hume, Hume's sympathy is the means of communication through which humans come to understand the sentiments (pains and pleasures) of others and from which humans can determine vice and virtue (Hume,
The artificial virtues--especially justice and promise-keeping, that most concern Hume's description of society. Though these virtues are not natural in the sense of being essential, Hume believes they arise naturally in society; therefore, society arises out of enlightened self-interest. Further, Hume believes humans should naturally join forces to gain power, to form a division of labor to increase ability, and to increase security through mutual succor (Hume, Justice, then, derives its origin from self-interest - ``the selfishness and confin'd generosity of man'' (Hume, - and is maintained by use of sympathy (Hume, Hume goes on to illustrate that like justice, promise-keeping derives from mutual self-interest (Hume, Hume uses the combination of natural self-interest and a sense of an extended societal self to explain the origin and continuation of society, justice, and morality.

Source--Hume, David. A Treatise on Human Nature. Ed. Norton and Norton. Oxford UP: 2000.

Philosophy with dr.b